Volume 2.11 | Apr 1

Intestinal Cell News 2.11 April 1, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
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Lypd8 Promotes the Segregation of Flagellated Microbiota and Colonic Epithelia
Researchers showed that Ly6/PLAUR domain containing 8 (Lypd8) protein prevents flagellated microbiota invading the colonic epithelia in mice. Lypd8, selectively expressed in epithelial cells at the uppermost layer of the large intestinal gland, was secreted into the lumen and bound flagellated bacteria including Proteus mirabilis. [Nature] Abstract
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Boosting Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Colonic Epithelial Cells Attenuates Inflammation In Vivo
In a colonic inflammation model, researchers noted that the expression of the phagocytic receptor Bai1 was progressively downmodulated. Consistent with this, BAI1-deficient mice had more pronounced colitis and lower survival, with many uncleared apoptotic corpses and inflammatory cytokines within the colonic epithelium. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Gut Microbiome-Derived Metabolites Modulate Intestinal Epithelial Cell Damage and Mitigate Graft-versus-Host Disease
Scientists carried out an unbiased analysis to identify previously unidentified alterations in gastrointestinal microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) after allogeneic bone marrow transplant (allo-BMT). Alterations in the amount of only one SCFA, butyrate, were observed only in the intestinal tissue. The reduced butyrate in CD326+ intestinal epithelial cells after allo-BMT resulted in decreased histone acetylation, which was restored after local administration of exogenous butyrate. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Collagen-Rich Stroma in Aggressive Colon Tumors Induces Mesenchymal Gene Expression and Tumor Cell Invasion
To separately study the neoplastic and stromal compartments of colon tumors, scientists generated a stroma gene filter. Comparative analysis of stromahigh and stromalow tumors showed that the neoplastic cells in stromahigh tumors express specific epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition drivers and that 98% of differentially expressed genes are strongly correlated with them. [Oncogene] Abstract

Long Non-Coding RNA CASC11 Interacts with hnRNP-K and Activates the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway to Promote Growth and Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer
The authors report that cancer susceptibility candidate 11 (CASC11) was upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues; increased CASC11 expression in CRC was associated with tumor size, serosal invasion, lymph metastasis, and the tumor-node-metastasis stage. [Cancer Lett] Abstract

Epidermal Growth Factor Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell Shedding via a MAPK Dependent Pathway
Researchers showed that epidermal growth factor suppresses cell shedding in the intestinal epithelium through a selective, MAPK dependent pathway affecting multiple extrusion mechanisms. [J Cell Sci] Abstract

Immunobiotic Bifidobacteria Strains Modulate Rotavirus Immune Response in Porcine Intestinal Epitheliocytes via Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling
Investigators aimed to characterize the antiviral response of an originally established porcine intestinal epithelial cell line by evaluating the molecular innate immune response to rotavirus. [PLoS One] Full Article


LIG4 Mediates Wnt Signaling-Induced Radioresistance
Researchers found that high Wnt signaling is associated with radioresistance in colorectal cancer cells and intestinal stem cells (ISCs). During radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, LIG4 mainly expressed in the crypts is conditionally upregulated in ISCs, accompanied by Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Taiman Acts as a Coactivator of Yorkie in the Hippo Pathway to Promote Tissue Growth and Intestinal Regeneration
Investigators demonstrated that Taiman facilitates the activity of Yorkie. First, Taiman overexpression upregulated Hippo pathway-responsive genes and induced tissue overgrowth. Second, the loss of tai downregulated the expression of Hippo pathway target genes and reduced organ size as well as tissue overgrowth caused by Yorkie overexpression. [Cell Disc] Full Article

A Systematic Analysis of Drosophila Regulatory Peptide Expression in Enteroendocrine Cells
Researchers established a basis to study regulatory peptide functions in enteroendocrine cells as well as the complex organization of enteroendocrine cells in the Drosophila midgut. [Mol Cells] Abstract

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The Impact of Hypoxia on Intestinal Epithelial Cell Functions: Consequences for Invasion by Bacterial Pathogens
The authors aim to describe the intestinal epithelial cellular response to hypoxia and the consequences for host interactions with invading gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. [Mol Cell Pediatr] Full Article

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Pfizer Announces Oral Tofacitinib, an Investigational JAK Inhibitor, Meets Primary and Key Secondary Endpoints in Two Pivotal Phase III Ulcerative Colitis Trials
Pfizer Inc. announced the oral presentation of detailed results from the first two pivotal Phase III studies from the oral clinical Trials for tofacitinib in ulcerative colitis program. [Press release from Pfizer discussing research presented at the 11th Congress of European Crohn´s and Colitis Organization (ECCO), Amsterdam] Press Release

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McMaster Captures Two National Patient-Oriented Research Networks Worth $25 Million
McMaster University is receiving two of five large federal grants for pioneering developments in patient-oriented health care. [McMaster University] Press Release

Cellceutix Receives Preliminary Approval for Clinical Trial of Brilacidin for Ulcerative Proctitis
Cellceutix Corporation announced that the company has received initial approval for the planned proof of concept, Phase II, clinical trial of Brilacidin for ulcerative proctitis. [Cellceutix Corporation] Press Release

Celimmune Commences Screening in Phase II Clinical Study in Refractory Celiac Disease Type II
Celimmune LLC, announced that it has commenced screening patients in its Phase II clinical study for AMG 714, an investigational anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of refractory celiac disease Type II. [Cellimmune LLC] Press Release

Qu Biologics Announces Initial Results in Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crohn’s Disease Clinical Trial
Qu Biologics Inc. announced initial results from the QBECO-01 study, a 68-patient randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease. [Qu Biologics Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW The Controlling Cancer Summit 2016
May 17-19, 2016
London, United Kingdom

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NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Inflammation (University of Oxford)

NEW Research Associate – Colitis and Autoimmunity (University of Glasgow)

NEW Faculty Positions – Cancer Research (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center )

Postdoctoral Position – Proteomics and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (University of Ottawa)

Postdoctoral Training Fellow – Intestinal Tissue Engineering (The Francis Crick Institute)

Program Director – IBD and Crohn’s Disease Program (The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust)

Faculty Position – Cancer Research (Texas Tech University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Nanomedicine (Johns Hopkins University)

Faculty Position – Cancer Research (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Immunology (Medical University of South Carolina)

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