Volume 1.28 | Oct 2

Newsletter Issue
Intestinal Cell News 1.28 October 2, 2015
Intestinal Cell News
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Rescuing Intestinal Stem Cells from Attack in Diabetes
Scientists demonstrated how diabetes can lead to destruction of the stem cells that maintain the intestinal lining, and identified a potential drug that could protect these stem cells and prevent or treat diabetic enteropathy. [Press release from Boston Children’s Hospital discussing online publication in Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Th17 Cell Induction by Adhesion of Microbes to Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Scientists showed that adhesion of microbes to intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) is a critical cue for Th17 induction. Upon monocolonization of germ-free mice or rats with segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) indigenous to mice (M-SFB) or rats (R-SFB), M-SFB and R-SFB showed host-specific adhesion to small intestinal ECs, accompanied by host-specific induction of Th17 cells. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

INPP4B Is an Oncogenic Regulator in Human Colon Cancer
Investigators showed that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3, inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and retards colon cancer xenograft growth. [Oncogene] Full Article

Wnt Activated β-Catenin and YAP Proteins Enhance the Expression of Non-Coding RNA Component of RNase MRP in Colon Cancer Cells
The authors examined the expression of RMRP and found a significant increase in colorectal and breast cancer patient tissues. They tested whether the oncogenic signaling pathways, Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP pathways, are relevant to the enhanced expression of RMRP in cancer cells because of the predicted β-catenin/TCF and YAP/TBX5 elements in the upstream regions of the RMRP gene. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Clusterin, a Gene Enriched in Intestinal Stem Cells, Is Required for L1-Mediated Colon Cancer Metastasis
Researchers identified the clusterin gene that is also enriched in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells, as a gene induced during L1-mediated colorectal cancer metastasis. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Prognostic Significance of Leucine-Rich-Repeat-Containing G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 5, an Intestinal Stem Cell Marker, in Gastric Carcinomas
Investigators examined the LGR5 expression in gastric cancer tissues by real time-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, and analyzed its clinicopathological relevance and prognostic value. The effects of LGR5 on cancer cell proliferation and migration were assessed with an in vitro transfection technique. [Gastric Cancer] Abstract

Involvement of Notch-1 in Resistance to Regorafenib in Colon Cancer Cells
Scientists generated regorafenib-resistant SW480 cells (Reg-R-SW480 cells) by culturing such cells with increasing concentration of regorafenib. Examination of intracellular signaling found that Akt signaling was activated in Reg-R-SW480 cells but not in wild-type SW480 cells, after regorafenib treatment as measured by Western Blot. [J Cell Physiol] Abstract

LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways
Researchers investigated the signaling pathways triggered by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). They used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors. [PLoS One] Full Article


Postnatal Epigenetic Regulation of Intestinal Stem Cells Requires DNA Methylation and Is Guided by the Microbiome
Scientists used whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and found that differentiation of mouse colonic intestinal stem cells to intestinal epithelium is not associated with major changes in DNA methylation. They detected extensive dynamic epigenetic changes in intestinal stem cells and their progeny during the suckling period, suggesting postnatal epigenetic development in this stem cell population. [Genome Biol] Full Article

Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Colon Exhibit Diverse Neuronal Subtypes and Can Be Populated by Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells when Donor Colon Is Aganglionic
The authors hypothesized that tissue-engineered colon (TEC) might contain a diverse population of enteric neuronal subtypes, and that aganglionic TEC can be populated by neurons and glia when supplemented with enteric nervous system progenitor cells in the form of neurospheres. [Tissue Eng Part A]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Ghrelin and Motilin Receptors as Drug Targets for Gastrointestinal Disorders
The most promising uses of motilin receptor agonists are the treatment of gastroparesis or conditions with slow gastric emptying, and ghrelin receptor agonists hold potential for the reduction of nausea and vomiting, and the treatment of constipation. Therapeutic, gastrointestinal roles for receptor antagonists or inverse agonists have not been identified. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.
Ignyta Announces Initiation of STARTRK-2 Phase II Clinical Trial of Entrectinib
Ignyta, Inc. announced the initiation of its Phase II clinical trial of entrectinib, the company’s proprietary oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting solid tumors that harbor activating alterations to NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, ROS1 or ALK. [Ignyta, Inc.] Press Release

CDC Awards $22,800,000 to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced it has awarded a total of $22,800,000 to 24 state health departments, as well as six universities, and one American Indian tribe to increase colorectal screening. The grants, awarded in a competitive process, are designed to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among men and women aged 50 to 75 years. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] Press Release

RuiYi Announces the First Human Dosing of a Novel Antibody, Gerilimzumab, for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis and other Autoimmune Disorders
RuiYi, Inc. announced the first human dosing of gerilimzumab, a novel monoclonal antibody that is directed against the IL-6 cytokine, for the treatment of autoimmune disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis. [RuiYi, Inc.] Press Release

From our sponsor: 3D intestinal organoid culture is made easy with IntestiCult™. Request a sample.
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW German Cancer Congress 2016
February 24-27, 2016
Berlin, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Inflammation (Amgen)

Research Associate – Intestinal Cell Biology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Investigation of Intestinal Epithelial Integrity with Organoid Cultures (AbbVie Inc.)

PhD Positions – Gut Microbiota and Colon Cancer (University of Southern Denmark)

Senior Stem Cell Scientist (Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Immunology (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Colorectal Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Drug Discovery and Action (University of Illinois)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Ex Vivo Tumor Organoid Models (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Immunology (Shanghai Institute of Immunology)

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