Volume 2.18 | May 20

Intestinal Cell News 2.18 May 20, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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Mule Regulates the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche via the Wnt Pathway and Targets EphB3 for Proteasomal and Lysosomal Degradation
Researchers showed in vivo that Mule controls murine intestinal stem and progenitor cell proliferation by modulating Wnt signaling via c-Myc. In the intestine, EphB/ephrinB interactions position cells along the crypt-villus axis and compartmentalize incipient colorectal tumors. [Cell Stem Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

A Colorectal Tumor Organoid Library Demonstrates Progressive Loss of Niche Factor Requirements during Tumorigenesis
The authors generated 55 colorectal tumor organoid lines from a range of histological subtypes and clinical stages, including rare subtypes. [Cell Stem Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Defensive Mutualism Rescues NADPH Oxidase Inactivation in Gut Infection
Scientists generated mice with complete or epithelium-restricted deficiency in the obligatory NOX dimerization partner Cyba. Researchers discovered that NOX1 regulates DUOX2 expression in the intestinal epithelium, which magnified the epithelial reactive oxygen species-deficiency. [Cell Host Microbe]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

ERK5 Signaling Rescues Intestinal Epithelial Turnover and Tumor Cell Proliferation upon ERK1/2 Abrogation
Scientists showed that loss of Erk1/2 in intestinal epithelial cells results in defects in nutrient absorption, epithelial cell migration and secretory cell differentiation. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Programming of Intestinal Epithelial Differentiation by IL-33 Derived from Pericryptal Fibroblasts in Response to Systemic Infection
Investigators demonstrated an unexpected function of IL-33 as a regulator of epithelial barrier functions. Mice lacking IL-33 showed decreased Paneth cell numbers and lethal systemic infection in response to Salmonella typhimurium. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Intestine-Specific Homeobox (ISX) Upregulates E2F1 Expression and Related Oncogenic Activities in HCC
Researchers found that ISX transcriptionally activated E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and associated oncogenic activity by directly binding to the E2 site of its promoter. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Expression of an Oncogenic BARD1 Splice Variant Impairs Homologous Recombination and Predicts Response to PARP-1 Inhibitor Therapy in Colon Cancer
The authors showed that loss of BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 (BARD1) function through the expression of a BARD1 splice variant, BARD1β, results in a more malignant phenotype with decreased RAD51 foci formation, reduced BRCA1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and decreased nuclear BRCA1 protein localization. BARD1β sensitizes colon cancer cells to poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibition even in a full-length BRCA1 background. [Sci Rep] Full Article

LPS Induces Hyper-Permeability of Intestinal Epithelial Cells
The authors elucidated the effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on paracellular permeability known to be severely affected in necrotizing enterocoliti. [J Cell Physiol] Abstract


Notch Signaling Regulates Asymmetric Division and Inter-Conversion between Lgr5 and Bmi1 Expressing Intestinal Stem Cells
Rapidly cycling LGR5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) located at the base of crypts are the primary driver of regeneration. Additionally, BMI1 expression is correlated with a slow cycling pool of ISCs located at +4 position. Scientists provided evidence that NOTCH signaling regulates the balance between these two populations and promotes asymmetric division as a mechanism for interconversion in the mouse intestine. [Sci Rep] Full Article

β-Arrestin1 Inhibits Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Stem Cell Apoptosis and Mucositis
The authors demonstrated that chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis by promoting crypt cell apoptosis, especially in Lgr5+ stem cells and Paneth cells but not in goblet cells, epithelial cells or vascular endothelial cells. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Free wallchart: The Intestinal Crypt
Advances in the Transepithelial Transport of Nanoparticles
The authors describe the potential intestinal absorption pathways of nanoparticles (NPs), including the transenterocytic route, paracellular route and M-cell-mediated route. NP properties that influence transcytosis are summarized; and the biodistribution of NPs after oral absorption is described and the future prospects of novel NPs are explored. [Drug Discov Today] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.
Announcing the National Microbiome Initiative
The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, in collaboration with Federal agencies and private-sector stakeholders, announced a new National Microbiome Initiative (NMI) to foster the integrated study of microbiomes across different ecosystems, and is hosting an event to bring together stakeholders vital to advancing the NMI. [The White House] Press Release

RDD Pharma Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase III Clinical Trial for Chronic Anal Fissure
RDD Pharma announced that the first patient has been dosed in its Phase III clinical trial of RDD-1219 for the topical treatment of chronic anal fissure. [RDD Pharma (PR Newswire Association LLC.)] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW ISSCR 2016 Annual Meeting
June 22-25, 2016
San Francisco, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
NEW Scientific Communications and Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Technical Sales Representative (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Research Associate/Senior Research Associate – Bioinformatics and Statistical Genetics (University College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Systems Immunology, Gut Inflammation and IBD (University College Cork)

Postdoctoral Position – Gut Microbiota and Colon Cancer (University of Southern Denmark)

Associate Director – Intestinal Microbiota (Institute for Basic Science/POSTECH)

Junior Principle Investigator – Gut Immunology (Institute for Basic Science/POSTECH)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Norovirus-Intestinal Microbiota Interactions (University of Florida)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Bioinformatics in Host-Microbiota Interactions (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute)

PhD Studentship – Gut Bacterial Metabolism (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)

Research Assistant – Autoimmune/Cell Biology (Immunocore Ltd)

Faculty Positions – Clinical Immunology (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

Grant Writer (Gladstone Institutes)

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