Volume 2.15 | Apr 29

Intestinal Cell News 2.15 April 29, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
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WRN Promoter CpG Island Hypermethylation Does Not Predict More Favorable Outcomes for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Irinotecan-Based Therapy
Scientists aimed to characterize methylation of the WRN promoter; determine the effect of WRN promoter hypermethylation upon expression; and validate a previous report that WRN promoter hypermethylation predicts improved outcomes for metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with irinotecan-based therapy. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract
Free wallchart: The Intestinal Crypt
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Wnt Ligands Secreted by Subepithelial Mesenchymal Cells Are Essential for the Survival of Intestinal Stem Cells and Gut Homeostasis
Scientists globally prevented Wnt secretion by genetically ablating Wntless. They found that preventing Wnt signaling in the entire body causes mortality due to impaired intestinal homeostasis. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

CDX2 Increases SLC7A7 Expression and Proliferation of Pig Intestinal Epithelial Cells
The authors evaluated the role of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), an intestine-specific transcription factor, in the proliferation of pig intestinal epithelial cells and searched for novel intestinal nutrient transporter genes activated by CDX2. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Distinct Cytoprotective Roles of Pyruvate and ATP by Glucose Metabolism on Epithelial Necroptosis and Crypt Proliferation in Ischemic Gut
Researchers investigated cytoprotective effects exerted by distinct glycolytic metabolites in ischemic gut. Their results showed that intestinal ischemia caused receptor-interacting protein kinase-dependent epithelial necroptosis and villus destruction accompanied by reduction in crypt proliferation. [J Physiol] Abstract

MicroRNA-682-Mediated Downregulation of PTEN in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Ameliorates Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
The authors report a critical role of the microRNA 682 (miR-682) as a key regulator and therapeutic target in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. MiR-682 was markedly induced in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) during intestinal ischemia in mice and in the human colonic epithelial cells during hypoxia, but was undetected rapidly after intestinal reperfusion in IEC of mice. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

TNFα/IFNγ Mediated Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Is Attenuated by MicroRNA-93 Downregulation of PTK6 in Mouse Colonic Epithelial Cells
Researchers showed that protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) siRNA and PTK6 null young adult mouse colonic epithelial cells exhibited significant attenuation of TNFα/IFNγ induced barrier dysfunction as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing assay and permeability assays. [PLoS One] Full Article

Transgenic Expression of Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor LPA2 in Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells Induces Intestinal Dysplasia
Investigators expressed human lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)2 in intestinal epithelial cells under control of the villin promoter. They demonstrated that overexpression of LPA2 alone can lead to intestinal dysplasia. [PLoS One] Full Article


β-Arrestin-2 Modulates Radiation-Induced Intestinal Crypt Progenitor/Stem Cell Injury
Investigators provide evidence that β-arrestin-2-mediated intestinal crypt progenitor/stem cell apoptosis is crucial for ionizing radiation-stimulated intestinal injury. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

Organoids as an Ex Vivo Model for Studying the Serotonin System in the Murine Small Intestine and Colon Epithelium
Scientists investigated the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system using organoids. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that small intestinal and colonic organoids express mRNAs encoding tryptophan hydroxylase-1, serotonin reuptake transporter, 5-HT receptor (HTR) 2A, HTR2B, and HTR4. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

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Gastrointestinal Stem Cells in Health and Disease: From Flies to Humans
The authors discuss recent advances in our understanding of the establishment, maintenance and regulation of diverse intestinal stem cell lineages in the gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila and mice. [Dis Model Mech] Abstract | Full Article

Stem Cell Dynamics and Pretumor Progression in the Intestinal Tract
The authors outline the progress made in the research into tracing stem cell dynamics. Further, they highlight the importance and potential clinical value of tracing stem cell dynamics in pretumor progression. [J Gastroenterol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.
Heat Biologics and OncoSec Present Data
Heat Biologics, Inc. announced that preclinical data from its collaboration with OncoSec Medical Incorporated focused on evaluating the combination of immunotherapy platforms were presented. [Press release from Heat Biologics, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release

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Northwestern Scientists Win Hartwell Research Awards
Two Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine scientists, Jeffrey Savas and Arun Sharma, are winners of the 2015 Hartwell Individual Biomedical Research Awards. Sharma, a research assistant professor in urology, won for his proposal to develop new treatments for Crohn’s disease in children. [Northwestern University] Press Release

Cancer Meets Precision Medicine: The Color Test for Risk of Common Hereditary Cancers in Women and Men
Color is broadening the Color Test to 30 genes that includes many of the most common hereditary cancers for women and men including breast, colorectal, melanoma, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, stomach and uterine cancers. [Color Genomics, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW The Stem Cell Niche 2016
May 22-26, 2016
Hillerod, Denmark

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cancer Stem Cell Biology (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Assistant – Autoimmune/Cell Biology (Immunocore Ltd)

Clinical Fellow – Cancer Immunotherapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Inflammation (University of Oxford)

Associate or Senior Editor – Epigenetics (Springer Nature)

Faculty Positions – Clinical Immunology (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation )

Grant Writer (Gladstone Institutes)

PhD Studentship – Transcriptional Regulation in Colon Cancer (University of Helsinki)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Inflammation (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Nanomedicine (Johns Hopkins University)

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