Volume 2.12 | Apr 6

Intestinal Cell News 2.12 April 8, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
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Gut Bacteria Drive Growth of Stem Cells in Colon Cancer
Researchers have shown a decisive role of gut bacteria in the regulation of intestinal stem cells and the development of colon cancer. This discovery promises new therapies not only for cancer but for promoting regeneration of the intestine, for example after chemotherapy. [Press release from Technical University Dresden discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

A Long Noncoding RNA Associated with Susceptibility to Celiac Disease
The authors report on the identification and characterization of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), lnc13, that harbors a celiac disease-associated haplotype block and represses expression of certain inflammatory genes under homeostatic conditions. [Science] Abstract

Differential Clonal Evolution in Oesophageal Cancers in Response to Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy
Scientists report whole-exome and deep sequencing of 30 paired oesophageal adenocarcinomas sampled before and after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. [Nat Commun] Full Article

SETD7 Controls Intestinal Regeneration and Tumorigenesis by Regulating Wnt/β-Catenin and Hippo/YAP Signaling
Researchers showed that SETD7 is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis and regeneration. Mechanistically, SETD7 is part of a complex containing Hippo/Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), AXIN1, and β-catenin, and SETD7-dependent methylation of YAP facilitates Wnt-induced nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. [Dev Cell] Abstract

Epigenetic Silencing of miR-124 Prevents Spermine Oxidase Regulation: Implications for Helicobacter Pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer
The polyamine catabolic enzyme spermine oxidase (SMOX) is induced in chronic inflammatory conditions, including Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, where its production of hydrogen peroxide contributes to DNA damage and subsequent tumorigenesis. The authors sought to determine if repression of miR-124 is associated with elevated SMOX activity and concluded that miR-124 is indeed a negative regulator of SMOX. [Oncogene] Abstract

Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-1 (S1P) Is Expressed by Lymphocytes, Dendritic Cells, and Endothelium and Modulated during Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The authors examined cell subsets that express sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) in the intestine using S1P1-eGFP mice, the regulation of S1P1 expression in lymphocytes after administration of dextran sulfate sodium, after colitis induced by transfer of CD4+CD45RBhi cells, and by crossing a mouse with TNF-driven ileitis with S1P1-eGFP mice. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

The Caspase-1 Inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK Attenuates Acute Gastric Injury in Mice: Involvement of Silencing NLRP3 Inflammasome Activities
Researchers evaluated the protective effects of inhibiting caspase-1 activity or gastric acid secretion on acute gastric injury in mice. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Targeting HCCR Expression Resensitizes Gastric Cancer Cells to Chemotherapy via Down-Regulating the Activation of STAT3
Scientists evaluated human cervical cancer oncogene (HCCR) expression in several gastric cancer cell lines and in one normal gastric mucosal cell line. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Phospholipase Cϵ Activates Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling by Causing Cytoplasmic Localization of Ribosomal S6 Kinase and Facilitating Its Phosphorylation of Inhibitor κB in Colon Epithelial Cells
The authors showed, by employing the colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, where APCMin/+ mice are administered with dextran sulfate sodium, that phospholipase Cϵ knockout alleviates colitis and suppresses the following tumorigenesis concomitant with marked attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Physiological Concentration of Exogenous Lactate Reduces Antimycin a Triggered Oxidative Stress in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 In Vitro
Researchers hypothesized that both lactobacilli and lactate influence porcine intestinal epithelial cells. In vivo experiments showed that concentration of lactate was significantly higher in gastric, duodenal and jejunal chyme of suckling piglets compared to their weaned counterparts. [PLoS One] Full Article

R-Spondins Are Expressed by the Intestinal Stroma and Are Differentially Regulated during Citrobacter Rodentium- and DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice
RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to assess the expression of R-spondins at steady state and in two mouse models of colonic inflammation. The cellular source of R-spondins was assessed in specific colonic cell populations isolated by cell sorting. [PLoS One] Full Article


Epidermal Growth Factor Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell Shedding via a MAPK Dependent Pathway.
Investigators asked whether shedding is controlled by epidermal growth factor receptor, an important driver of intestinal growth and differentiation. [J Cell Sci] Abstract | Press Release

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Current Evidence Supporting Mucosal Healing and Deep Remission as Important Treatment Goals for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Mucosal healing (MH) is associated with sustained clinical remission, steroid-free remission, and reduced rates of hospitalization and surgery. There is a well-known disconnect between clinical symptoms and mucosal lesions that is more pronounced in CD. More stringent therapeutic goals have been discussed recently such as deep remission defined as clinical remission associated with MH. [Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.
UAB Approved for $2.5 Million Research Funding Award by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
Jeffrey Curtis, M.D., professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, has been approved for a $2.5 million research award by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to study the comparative effectiveness and safety of biologic and newer therapies for a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. [University of Alabama at Birmingham] Press Release

Motus Completes Enrollment of Phase IIb Clinical Trial of Relamorelin for Diabetic Gastroparesis
Motus announced the completion of enrollment for a Phase IIb clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of relamorelin (RM-131), Motus’ ghrelin agonist, for the treatment of gastroparesis in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. [Motus ] Press Release

VolitionRx Announces CE Marks for Two NuQ® Blood Assays for Detection of Colorectal Cancer
VolitionRx Limited announced CE marking for two blood-based diagnostic assays for the detection of colorectal cancer. The biomarker assays, NuQ®V001 and NuQ®T003, identify and analyze fragments of chromosomes, called nucleosomes, circulating within the blood for the presence of cancer signatures. [VolitionRx Limited] Press Release

Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals Completes Target Enrollment in Pivotal Phase III Clinical Trial Evaluating CPP-1X/Sulindac in Patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that target enrollment has been achieved for the company’s pivotal Phase III clinical trial, CPP FAP-310, evaluating CPP-1X/sulindac in adults with familial adenomatous polyposis. [Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals] Press Release

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NEW Mouse Development, Stem Cells & Cancer
July 8-28, 2016
Cold Spring Harbor, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
NEW PhD Studentship – Pectin in Human Intestinal Tract (Wageningen University)

NEW PhD Studentship – Transcriptional Regulation in Colon Cancer (University of Helsinki)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Inflammation (University of Oxford)

Research Associate – Colitis and Autoimmunity (University of Glasgow)

Faculty Positions – Cancer Research (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center )

Postdoctoral Training Fellow – Intestinal Tissue Engineering (The Francis Crick Institute)

Program Director – IBD and Crohn’s Disease Program (The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust)

Faculty Position – Cancer Research (Texas Tech University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Nanomedicine (Johns Hopkins University)

Faculty Position – Cancer Research (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center)

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