Volume 2.06 | Feb 19

Intestinal Cell News 2.06 February 19, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
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A Deeper Take on Our Sexual Nature
Scientists used genetic tools that allow them to turn genes “on” and “off” specifically in flies’ intestines. This allowed them to tailor the cells to be more “female” or more “male”. When the team feminized or masculinized the flies’ gut stem cells this changed the extent to which the cells multiplied. [Press release from MRC Clinical Science Center discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Reprogrammed Stomach Tissue as a Renewable Source of Functional β Cells for Blood Glucose Regulation
Researchers showed that cells of the antral stomach have a previously unappreciated propensity for conversion into functional insulin-secreting cells. Native antral endocrine cells shared a surprising degree of transcriptional similarity with pancreatic β cells, and expression of β cell reprogramming factors in vivo converted antral cells efficiently into insulin+ cells with close molecular and functional similarity to β cells. [Cell Stem Cell]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Smyd3 Is a Transcriptional Potentiator of Multiple Cancer-Promoting Genes and Required for Liver and Colon Cancer Development
Investigators showed that Smyd3 expression in mice is required for chemically induced liver and colon cancer formation. In these organs Smyd3 functions in the nucleus, stimulating the transcription of several key regulators involved in cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, the JAK/Stat3 oncogenic pathway, as well as the Myc and Ctnnb1 oncogenes. [Cancer Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Withaferin-A Suppress AKT Induced Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer Cells
Researchers explored the anti-tumorigenic effects of withaferin A (WA) on colorectal cancer cells (CRC) overexpressing AKT in preclinical models. Their results indicated that WA, a natural compound, resulted in significant inhibition of AKT activity and led to the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion by downregulating the epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers in CRC cells overexpressing AKT. [Oncotarget] Full Article

LncRNA H19 Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function via miR-675 by Interacting with RNA-Binding Protein HuR
Scientists report that H19 plays an important role in controlling the intestinal epithelial barrier function by serving as a precursor for microRNA miR-675. [Mol Cell Biol] Abstract

Intestine-Specific Homeobox (ISX) Induces Intestinal Metaplasia and Cell Proliferation to Contribute to Gastric Carcinogenesis
Researchers elucidated the role of ISX in the development of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric carcinogenesis. The presence of IM and Helicobacter pylori infection in human stomach was correlated with ISX expression. ISX expression in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa were correlated. [J Gastroenterol] Abstract

Actin-Depolymerizing Factor and Cofilin-1 Have Unique and Overlapping Functions in Regulating Intestinal Epithelial Junctions and Mucosal Inflammation
Investigators examined the roles of actin-depolymerizing factor and cofilin-1 in regulating the structure and functions of epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium. [Am J Pathol] Abstract


BVES Regulates Intestinal Stem Cell Programs and Intestinal Crypt Viability after Radiation
Researchers hypothesized that blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES) influences intestinal stem cell programs and is critical to small intestinal homeostasis after radiation injury. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Cdk4 Functions in Multiple Cell Types to Control Drosophila Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
The authors showed that genetic modulation of CyclinD/Cdk4 activity or mTOR-dependent signaling cell-autonomously regulates enterocyte growth, which influences intestinal stem cells proliferation and enteroblast differentiation. [Biol Open] Full Article

Wnt Signaling Inhibition Deprives Small Intestinal Stem Cells of Clonogenic Capacity
Investigators revealed the functional consequences of inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling in the intestinal epithelium. Suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling affected asymmetric division of intestinal stem cells rather than proliferation. [Genesis] Abstract | Full Article

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Exploring Interactions between Pathogens and the Drosophila Gut
The growing knowledge of gut-pathogen interactions has been based to a large extent on the use of genetically tractable model hosts such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The authors summarize the growing literature and critically address the advantages and disadvantages of using this model to extrapolate results from studying pathogen virulence and intestinal responses to humans. [Dev Comp Immunol] Abstract

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RedHill Biopharma Receives Notice of Allowance of Fifth U.S. Patent Covering RHB-104 Phase III Crohn’s Disease Program
RedHill Biopharma Ltd. announced that it has received a notice of allowance from the United States Patent and Trademark Office for a new patent covering RHB-104. RHB-104 is a proprietary combination therapy in oral capsule formulation, with potent intracellular, anti-mycobacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, currently undergoing a first Phase III study for Crohn’s disease and a Phase IIa study for multiple sclerosis. [RedHill Biopharma Ltd.] Press Release

Cancer MoonShot 2020 Announces the Formation of a National Pediatrics Consortium, a Major Milestone in the War on Cancer in Children
Cancer MoonShot 2020 announced another milestone in its quest to alter the course of cancer care with the formation of the Pediatrics Consortium focused on bringing the promise of combined immunotherapy as the next-generation standard of cancer care to children diagnosed with the disease. [Cancer MoonShot 2020] Press Release

Cutting Edge Medical Research Ideas Receive £23.2 Million Boost
The Medical Research Council is accelerating innovative medical research with £23.2 million in new funding to take ground-breaking ideas from UK universities into industry and out to patients. [Medical Research Council] Press Release

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NEW WIN 2016
July 27-28, 2016
Paris, France

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (University of California, San Diego)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Linköping University)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Cancer Epigenetics (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Immunology (Medical University of South Carolina)

Research Associate – Autoimmunity (The Scripps Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

Gastroenterologist – Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Mayo Clinic)

Postdoctoral Associate – Biomedical and Single Cell Genomics (Cornell University)

Faculty Position – Gastrointestinal Physiology (University of Ottawa)

Postdoctoral Position – Gut Inflammation and IBD (University College Cork)

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