Volume 2.02 | Jan 22

Intestinal Cell News 2.02 January 22, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Rho-A Prenylation and Signaling Link Epithelial Homeostasis to Intestinal Inflammation
The authors characterized the transcriptome of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients using a genome-wide approach. They observed disease-specific alterations in IECs with markedly impaired Rho-A signaling in active IBD patients. [J Clin Invest] Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
INTESTINAL CANCERS & DISEASES

PKLR Promotes Colorectal Cancer Liver Colonization through Induction of Glutathione Synthesis
Using a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen, investigators identified liver and red blood cell pyruvate kinase (PKLR) as a driver of metastatic liver colonization. PKLR expression was increased in liver metastases as well as in primary colorectal tumors of patients with metastatic disease. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Long Noncoding RNA UPAT Promotes Colon Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Degradation of UHRF1
The authors showed that a long noncoding RNAs termed UPAT [ubiquitin-like plant homeodomain and really interesting new gene finger domain-containing protein 1 Protein Associated Transcript] is required for the survival and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Small Molecule Prodigiosin Restores p53 Tumor Suppressor Activity in Chemoresistant Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells via C-Jun-Mediated ΔNp73 Inhibition and p73 Activation
Researchers investigated the effects of the small molecule prodigiosin, which restores the p53 pathway in tumor cells via p73 activation, on colorectal cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. [Cancer Res] Abstract

The Gut Epithelial Receptor LRRC19 Promotes the Recruitment of Immune Cells and Gut Inflammation
Scientists found that the gut immune receptor leucine-rich repeat (LRR) C19 is involved in host-microbiota interactions. LRRC19 deficiency not only impairs the gut immune system but also reduces inflammatory responses in gut tissues. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Bmp Signaling in Colonic Mesenchyme Regulates Stromal Microenvironment and Protects from Polyposis Initiation
Researchers showed that loss of Bmp exclusively in the gastrointestinal epithelium resulted in increased epithelial proliferation without polyposis initiation, thus suggesting a key role for mesenchymal Bmp signaling in polyposis initiation. [Int J Cancer] Abstact

Porcine Lactoferrin-Derived Peptide LFP-20 Protects Intestinal Barrier by Maintaining Tight Junction Complex and Modulating Inflammatory Response
Investigators assessed the protective effects of LFP-20 on LPS-induced intestinal damage in a LPS-induced mouse model and in vitro, using intestinal porcine epithelial cell line 1 cells. [Biochem Pharmacol] Abstract

The PI3K/Akt Pathway Is Involved in Procyanidin-Mediated Suppression of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth
Researchers investigated the capacity of procyanidins (PCA) with different degrees of polymerization to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth, characterizing the underlying mechanisms. They showed that large PCA can inhibit CRC cell growth via the Akt kinase pathway. [Mol Carcinog] Abstract

Exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 PAM Constraint for Single-Nucleotide Resolution Interventions
The authors targeted the heterozygous G13A activating mutation of KRAS in colorectal cancer cells and they showed reversal of drug resistance to a MEK small-molecule inhibitor. [PLoS One] Full Article

Watch Now: Webinar on Gastrointestinal Organoids by Dr. Meritxell Huch
 
REVIEWS
Reparative Inflammation Takes Charge of Tissue Regeneration
Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies. [Nature] Abstract

Organoid Models of Human Gastrointestinal Development and Disease
The authors review the latest discoveries from studies of tissue-derived and pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal, gastric, esophageal, liver, and pancreatic organoids. [Gastroenterology] Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Cancer MoonShot 2020 Reaches First Clinical Trial Milestone: Immunotherapy Trial Demonstrates Encouraging Survival Rates in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Who Failed All Standard Therapy
Precision Biologics and the Cancer MoonShot 2020 Program ‎announced promising data from its Phase II clinical trial of the first neo-epitope1‎ targeting antibody, Ensituximab, studied in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer who failed all standards of care. [Precision Biologics, Inc.] Press Release

The Kenneth Rainin Foundation Announces $100,000 Innovator Grant Opportunity for Scientists
To inspire scientists to pursue out-of-the-box ideas and push the boundaries of mainstream inflammatory bowel disease research, the Kenneth Rainin Foundation seeks letters of inquiry for its $100,000 Innovator Awards program. [Kenneth Rainin Foundation (PR Newswire Association LLC.)] Press Release

$5 Million Donation from the Hospira Foundation Will Support Research in Cancer Care, Prevention and Treatment
The Hospira Foundation has donated $5 million to the University of Chicago Medicine to create the Hospira Foundation Professorship in Oncology. This position significantly bolsters the University’s capacity to conduct pioneering research in cancer. [The University of Chicago] Press Release

Synthetic Biologics Reports Positive Topline Data from Second Phase II Clinical Trial of SYN-010 in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation (IBS-C)
Synthetic Biologics, Inc. reported that the second Phase II clinical trial of its proprietary SYN-010 for the treatment of IBS-C met its primary endpoint. [Synthetic Biologics, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposia – Stem Cells and Regeneration in the Digestive Organs
March 13-17, 2016
Keystone, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Host-Microbial Interactions (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Cancer Gene Research (University of Oxford)

Faculty Position – Gastrointestinal Physiology (University of Ottawa)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Genomics (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute)

PhD Studentship – Cell Biology (Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research)

Stem Cell Production Scientist (Definigen Ltd)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology/Genome Engineering (Amgen)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Host-Microbial Interactions (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Position – Gut Inflammation and IBD (University College Cork)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Immunotherapy (Inserm)


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