Volume 2.01 | Jan 15

Intestinal Cell News 2.01 January 15, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
CCAT1 Is an Enhancer-Templated RNA that Predicts BET Sensitivity in Colorectal Cancer
To uncover the key epigenetic regulators that drive colon cancer growth, scientists used a CRISPR loss-of-function screen and identified a number of essential genes, including the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4. [J Clin Invest] Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
INTESTINAL CANCERS & DISEASES

CFTR Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Murine and Human Intestinal Cancer
To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on gastrointestinal cancer, researchers generated ApcMin mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. They indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. [Oncogene] Abstract

Oncogenic KRAS Activates an Embryonic Stem Cell-Like Program in Human Colon Cancer Initiation
Investigators found that KRAS mutation imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Low Adherent Cancer Cell Subpopulations Are Enriched in Tumorigenic and Metastatic Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition-Induced Cancer Stem-Like Cells
The authors showed that low adherent breast and colon cancer cell subpopulations have stem-like properties. They demonstrated that trypsin-sensitive breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations show increased ALDH activity, higher ability to exclude Hoechst 33342, enlarged proportion of cells with a cancer stem-like cell phenotype and are enriched in sphere- and colony-forming cells in vitro. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Candida albicans Infection Leads to Barrier Breakdown and a MAPK/NF-κB Mediated Stress Response in the Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line C2BBe1
The authors identified NF-κB activation as an important protective signaling pathway in the response of epithelial cells to C. albicans. [Cell Microbiol] Abstract

NOD2 Is Regulated By miR-320 in Physiological Conditions but this Control Is Altered in Inflamed Tissues of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Researchers showed that NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) 2 expression is under the control of miR-320. They also showed in vitro and ex vivo that inflammation induces a decrease of miR-320 and the latter correlates negatively with NOD2 expression. [Inflamm Bowel Dis] Abstract

Gab2 Facilitates Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via the MEK/ERK/MMP Signaling in Colorectal Cancer
Scientists confirmed that increased Grb2-associated binder 2 (Gab2) expression correlated with higher tumor node metastasis stage and highly invasive colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of Gab2 promoted metastasis of CRC cells, whereas silencing of Gab2 resulted in inhibited metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. [J Exp Clin Cancer Res] Full Article

miR-137 Regulates the Tumorigenicity of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Through the Inhibition of DCLK1
Investigators demonstrated that microRNA-137 (miR-137) has the capacity to suppress the tumorigenicity of colon cancer stem cells and that maintained expression of miR-137 in normal colon stem cells contributes to suppressing uncontrolled cell proliferation through the inhibition of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) expression. [Mol Cancer Res] Abstract

Checkpoint Kinase 1 Activation Enhances Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function via Regulation of Claudin-5 Expression
Scientists examined the effects of daunorubicin and rebeccamycin, two anti-tumor chemicals that induce DNA damage, on tight junction integrity in human intestinal epithelial cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Watch Now: Webinar on Gastrointestinal Organoids by Dr. Meritxell Huch
 
REVIEWS
Engineering Stem Cell Organoids
The authors discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Researcher Gets Grant to Study How Immune System Can Prevent Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
A Georgia State University researcher has received a private grant of nearly $300,000 to investigate how the immune system can prevent inflammatory bowel disease. Benoit Chassaing, assistant professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences, will study how the adaptive immune system, which protects the body against pathogens, can control intestinal bacteria to prevent inflammation in the gut. [Georgia State University] Press Release

Takeda and enGene Establish Strategic Alliance to Develop Novel Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases
Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. and enGene, Inc. announced a strategic alliance to discover, develop and commercialize novel therapies for specialty gastrointestinal diseases using enGene’s “Gene Pill” gene delivery platform. [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd.] Press Release

GE Healthcare, FedDev Ontario Commit CAD $40 Million for New CCRM-Led Centre to Solve Cell Therapy Manufacturing Challenges
GE Healthcare, the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (FedDev Ontario), and the Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine (CCRM) are building a centre for advanced therapeutic cell technologies in Toronto with an investment of $40 million from GE and FedDev Ontario. [Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW The Controlling Cancer Summit 2016
May 17-19, 2016
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Cancer Gene Research (University of Oxford)

Faculty Position – Gastrointestinal Physiology (University of Ottawa)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Genomics (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute)

PhD Studentship – Cell Biology (Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research)

Stem Cell Production Scientist (Definigen Ltd)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology/Genome Engineering (Amgen)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Host-Microbial Interactions (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Position – Gut Inflammation and IBD (University College Cork)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Immunotherapy (Inserm)

Faculty Position – Autoimmune Disease and Rheumatologic Inflammation (Cleveland Clinic)


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