Volume 2.00 | Jan 8

Intestinal Cell News 2.00 January 8, 2016
Intestinal Cell News
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Targeting PTPRK-RSPO3 Colon Tumors Promotes Differentiation and Loss of Stem-Cell Function
Scientists showed that targeting RSPO3 in PTPRK-RSPO3-fusion-positive human tumor xenografts inhibits tumor growth and promotes differentiation. Genes expressed in the stem-cell compartment of the intestine were among those most sensitive to anti-RSPO3 treatment. [Nature] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced from Mouse Neural Stem Cells and Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Small Molecule Compounds
Researchers demonstrated that neural stem cells from the ectoderm and small intestinal epithelial cells from the endoderm can be chemically reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells. [Cell Res] Full Article

Deregulation of STING Signaling in Colorectal Carcinoma Constrains DNA Damage Responses and Correlates with Tumorigenesis
Investigators report that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling is recurrently suppressed in a wide variety of cancers, including colorectal carcinoma. Loss of STING signaling impeded DNA damage responses accountable for generating key cytokines that facilitate tissue repair and anti-tumor T cell priming, such as type I interferons. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Sphingosine Kinase 2 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Enhancing MYC Expression
Researchers investigated the SphK2 expression in tumoral tissue and the matched normal mucosae using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. They evaluated the impact of SphK2 knockdown on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

Checkpoint Kinase 1 Activation Enhances Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function via Regulation of Claudin-5 Expression
Investigators examined the effects of daunorubicin and rebeccamycin, two anti-tumor chemicals that induce DNA damage, on tight junction integrity in human intestinal epithelial cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Hypoxia Decreases Invasin-Mediated Yersinia enterocolitica Internalization into Caco-2 Cells
Researchers examined the role of hypoxia on the internalization of Y. enterocolitica into intestinal epithelial cells. They showed that hypoxic pre-incubation of Caco-2 cells resulted in significantly decreased bacterial internalization compared to cells grown under normoxia. [PLoS One] Full Article


Accumulation of Differentiating Intestinal Stem Cell Progenies Drives Tumorigenesis
Scientists report that loss of the SOX transcription factor, Sox21a, blocks the differentiation program of enteroblast, the intestinal stem cell progeny in the adult Drosophila midgut. [Nat Commun] Full Article

EGFR/Ras Signaling Controls Drosophila Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation via Capicua-Regulated Genes
Investigators identified capicua, pointed, and Ets21C as critical downstream effectors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. [PLoS Genet] Full Article

Villification in the Mouse: Bmp Signals Control Intestinal Villus Patterning
The authors showed that in mice, muscle-induced epithelial folding does not occur and artificial deformation of the epithelium does not determine the pattern of clusters or villi. In intestinal explants, modulation of Bmp signaling altered the spatial distribution of clusters and changes the pattern of emerging villi. [Development] Abstract

Inactivation of NKX6.3 in the Stomach Leads to Abnormal Expression of CDX2 and SOX2 Required for Gastric-to-Intestinal Transdifferentiation
Scientists characterized the effects of NKX6.3 that may contribute to gastric intestinal metaplasia. NKX6.3 expression was significantly reduced in gastric mucosae with intestinal metaplasia. [Mod Pathol] Abstract

GATAe Regulates Intestinal Stem Cell Maintenance and Differentiation in Drosophila Adult Midgut
The authors investigated the roles of GATAe, the Drosophila intestinal GATA factor, in adult midgut homeostasis with its first-generated knock-out mutant as well as cell type-specific RNAi and overexpression experiments. [Dev Biol] Abstract

Free wallchart: The Intestinal Crypt
Modulatory Roles of MicroRNAs in the Regulation of Different Signaling Pathways in Large Bowel Cancer Stem Cells
The authors analyze the roles of microRNAs in the regulation of colon cancer stem cells through their interaction with various signaling pathways. [Biol Cell] Abstract

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Takeda and Enterome Enter Strategic Drug Discovery Collaboration Focused on Microbiome Targets across Multiple Gastrointestinal Disorders
Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. announced they have entered into a strategic drug discovery collaboration to research and develop potential new therapeutics directed at microbiome targets thought to play crucial roles in gastrointestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases and motility disorders. [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd.] Press Release

Enterome Announces Collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Innovation Focused on the Discovery of Novel Targets and Therapeutics for Crohn’s Disease
Enterome Bioscience SA announces that it has entered into a collaborative research agreement with Janssen Biotech, Inc. and the French National Institute for Agriculture Research. [Enterome Bioscience SA] Press Release

Two Penn Physicians Recognized by Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America
Penn Medicine’s Gary Lichtenstein, MD, a Professor of Medicine and Gary Wu, MD, the Ferdinand G. Weisbrod Professor in Gastroenterology were recently recognized by The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America with 2015 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Scientific Achievement Awards. [University of Pennsylvania] Press Release

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NEW International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 50th Anniversary Conference
July 7-10, 2016
Lyon, France

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Stem Cell Biology (University of California, San Francisco)

NEW Faculty Position – Gastrointestinal Physiology (University of Ottawa)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Genomics (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute)

NEW PhD Studentship – Cell Biology (Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research)

NEW Stem Cell Production Scientist (Definigen Ltd)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology/Genome Engineering (Amgen)

NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Host-Microbial Interactions (University of Oxford)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Gut Inflammation and IBD (University College Cork)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Immunotherapy (Inserm)

Faculty Position – Autoimmune Disease and Rheumatologic Inflammation (Cleveland Clinic)

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