Volume 1.05 | Apr 24

Intestinal Cell News 1.05 April 24, 2015
Intestinal Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Enterobacteria-Secreted Particles Induce Production of Exosome-Like S1P-Containing Particles by Intestinal Epithelium to Drive Th17-Mediated Tumorigenesis
Scientists identified a novel pathogen-host interaction that promotes gut inflammation and the development of colon cancer. They found that enteropathogenic bacteria-secreted particles stimulate intestinal epithelium to produce intestinal mucosa-derived exosome-like nanoparticles containing elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate, CCL20 and prostaglandin E2. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Free wallchart: The Intestinal Crypt
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
INTESTINAL CANCERS & DISEASES

Mechanistic Investigation of the Biological Effects of SiO2 , TiO2 , and ZnO Nanoparticles on Intestinal Cells
Researchers aimed to investigate the potential side-effects of food-borne nanoparticles (NP) on intestinal cells. Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs invoked the most inflammatory responses from the cells and induced the highest intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. [Small] Abstract

Loss of Caspase-3 Sensitizes Colon Cancer Cells to Genotoxic Stress via RIP1-Dependent Necrosis
Investigators generated caspase-3 knockout and knockdown human colorectal cancer cells, and found that they are sensitized to DNA-damaging agents including 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, and camptothecin. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

HIF-Dependent Regulation of Claudin-1 Is Central to Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Integrity
Given the central role of intestinal epithelial cells in barrier function, researchers determined whether hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) influenced epithelial tight junction structure and function. [Mol Biol Cell]
Article | Full Article

l-Tryptophan Activates Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Enhances Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells
Researchers tested the hypothesis that l-tryptophan may activate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and enhance expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. [J Nutr] Abstract

Triptolide Abrogates Growth of Colon Cancer and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest by Inhibiting Transcriptional Activation of E2F
Investigators evaluated whether triptolide/minnelide is effective against colorectal cancer and elucidated the mechanism by which triptolide induces cell death in colorectal cancer. [Lav Invest] Abstract

Involvement of Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 in Intestinal Absorption of Trifluridine Using Human Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells
To evaluate the intestinal absorption mechanism of anticancer trifluridine, scientists investigated the uptake and transcellular transport of FTD by human small intestinal epithelial cell monolayer as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells. [J Pharm Sci] Abstract

INTESTINAL STEM CELL & ORGANOID RESEARCH

Scap Is Required for Sterol Synthesis and Crypt Growth in Intestinal Mucosa
To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, scientists generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT2 ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. [J Lipid Res]
Abstract | Full Article

Frizzled7 Functions as a Wnt Receptor in Intestinal Epithelial Lgr5+ Stem Cells
Scientists showed that Frizzled 7 (Fzd7) is enriched in Lgr5+ stem cells and binds Wnt3 and Wnt2b. Conditional deletion of the Fzd7 gene in adult intestinal epithelium leads to stem cell loss in vivo and organoid death in vitro. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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REVIEWS
Somatic Stem Cell Heterogeneity: Diversity in the Blood, Skin and Intestinal Stem Cell Compartments
Stem cell function is frequently described as following a hierarchical model in which a single master cell undergoes self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types and is responsible for most regenerative activity. However, recent data from studies on blood, skin and intestinal epithelium all point to the concomitant action of multiple types of stem cells with distinct everyday roles. [Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol] Abstract

Colorectal cancer: Back to The Stroma-The Real Villain in Colorectal Cancer?
The cells responsible for particular gene signatures in large-scale microarray studies of colorectal cancer have now been revealed. In doing so, the gene signature associated with poor prognosis is shown to be predominantly of stromal origin. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.

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SCIENCE NEWS
Oral Milk Thistle Extract Stops Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells from Growing Tumors
Scientists showed that orally administering the chemical silibinin, purified from milk thistle, slows the ability of colorectal cancer stem cells to grow the disease. [Press release from The University of Colorado Cancer Center discussing research presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2015, Philadelphia] Press Release

Long Non-Coding RNA Modulates Colorectal Cancer Metabolism
Scientists have found that a specific long non coding RNA called CCAT2 regulates cancer metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. [Press release from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center discussing research presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2015, Philadelphia] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Research Team Wins $4.6 Million Grant to Study Diarrheal Disease Using Organoids
An interdisciplinary team of researchers and physicians has been awarded a $4.6 million multi-project grant from the National Institutes of Health to study diarrheal disease using lab-developed human stomach and intestinal tissues known as organoids. [University of Cincinnati] Press Release

To Fight Nasty Digestive Bugs, University of Michigan Scientists Set Out to Build a Better Gut – Using Stem Cells
New $6.4 million federal grant support will fuel the development of “guts in a dish” to study interaction between cells & microbes in both health and disease [University of Michigan] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cell Symposia: Cancer, Inflammation, and Immunity
June 14-16, 2015
Sitges, Spain

NEW ISSCR 2015 Annual Meeting
June 24-27, 2015
Stockholm, Sweden

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Microbiota in Cancer (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Homeostasis in Gut Development and Disease (Sickkids Research Institute)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoc Physiology (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre)

Assistant Investigator – Colon Cancer (Baylor Research Institute and Sammons Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

Senior Medical Advisor – Inflammation & Immunology (Celgene Corporation)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Transcriptional Mechanisms of Stomach and Intestinal Stem Cells (Sickkids Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Functional Role of Intestinal Macrophages (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – New Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Microbiota in Cancer (Mount Sinai School of Medicine)


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