Volume 1.03 | Apr 10

Intestinal Cell News 1.03 April 10, 2015
Intestinal Cell News
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Researchers Find New Treatment Options for Colon Cancer
Scientists have discovered that an existing chemotherapy drug used to treat leukemia could prevent and control the growth of colorectal tumors. They found that Imatinib, an enzyme blocker widely used to treat leukemia, works by blocking a signaling pathway related to a group of cell receptors called EphB. [Press release from Nanyang Technological University discussing online prepublication in Science Translation Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Marks Promoters in Colon that Resist DNA Hypermethylation in Cancer
Researchers indicated that promoters that acquire 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) upon normal colon differentiation are innately resistant to neoplastic hypermethylation by mechanisms that do not require high levels of 5hmC in tumors. [Genome Biol] Full Article

Systemic Organ Wasting Induced by Localized Expression of the Secreted Insulin/IGF Antagonist ImpL2
Scientists have developed a model for organ wasting in adult Drosophila, whereby overproliferation induced by activation of Yorkie, the Yap1 oncogene ortholog, in intestinal stem cells leads to wasting of the ovary, fat body, and muscle. [Dev Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Epithelial-Specific A2B Adenosine Receptor Signaling Protects the Colonic Epithelial Barrier during Acute Colitis
Researchers combined pharmacologic studies and studies in mice with global or tissue-specific deletion of the A2B adenosine receptor (Adora2b). In vitro studies with Adora2b knockdown in intestinal epithelial cultures or pharmacologic studies highlighted Adora2b-driven phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein as a specific barrier repair response. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

IGF1 Stimulates Crypt Expansion via Differential Activation of Two Intestinal Stem Cell Populations
Investigators provided new evidence that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) activates two intestinal stem cell populations via distinct regulatory pathways to promote growth of normal intestinal epithelium and crypt regeneration after irradiation. [FASEB J] Abstract

Aberrant MEK5/ERK5 Signaling Contributes to Human Colon Cancer Progression via NF-κB Activation
The authors evaluated MEK5 and ERK5 expression in colon cancer progression and ascertained the relevance of MEK5/ERK5 signaling in colon cancer. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Pharmacologically Blocking p53-Dependent Apoptosis Protects Intestinal Stem Cells and Mice from Radiation
Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, scientists demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Role of Lgr5-Positive Cells in Colorectal Cancer
To determine the role of Lgr5-positive cells in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancers, researchers prepared an adeno-associated virus that carries diphtheria toxin fragment A under the control of the Lgr5 promoter. [Tumor Biol] Abstract


Notch Receptor Regulation of Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis and Crypt Regeneration
The authors used genetic deletion of Notch1 and Notch2 to define receptor roles on stem cell function, cell proliferation/differentiation, and repair after injury. They observed impaired crypt regeneration after radiation in both Notch1– and Notch2-deleted intestine, suggesting that higher Notch activity is required post-injury. [Dev Biol] Abstract

Intestinal Organoids: A Model of Intestinal Fibrosis for Evaluating Anti-Fibrotic Drugs
Investigators exploited recent advances in stem cell derived human intestinal organoids as a new human model of fibrosis in Crohn’s disease. [Exp Mol Pathol] Abstract

A 3-D Enteroid-Based Model to Study T-Cell and Epithelial Cell Interaction
Scientists described a method to study T-cell-epithelial cell interactions using a recently established long-term intestinal “enteroid” culture system. [J Immunol Methods] Abstract

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Stem Cell and Progenitor Fate in the Mammalian Intestine: Notch and Lateral Inhibition in Homeostasis and Disease
The authors review recent discoveries that advance our understanding of how cell fate in the mammalian intestine is decided by Notch and lateral inhibition, focusing on the molecular determinants that regulate protein turnover, transcriptional control and epigenetic regulation. [EMBO Rep] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the intestinal cell research field.

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Qu Biologics Granted U.S. Patent for Use of E. coli to Treat Crohn’s Disease
Qu Biologics Inc. announced that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has issued U.S. Patent No. 8,980,279 relating to the use of immunotherapies derived from components of E. coli to treat Crohn’s disease. [Qu Biologics Inc.] Press Release

BÜHLMANN Launches IBDoc® – The First CE Marked Calprotectin Home Test
BÜHLMANN announced the launch of IBDoc®, the first in vitro diagnostic test to measure the fecal inflammation marker calprotectin at home. [BÜHLMANN Laboratories AG] Press Release

USPTO Issues Key US Patent to TiGenix for the Use of Adipose Derived Stromal Cells in the Treatment of Fistulas
TiGenix NV announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued US Patent 8,999,709 relating to the use of an adipose derived stromal cell population in the treatment of fistula [TiGenix NV (GlobeNewswire, Inc.)] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 21st International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) Annual Meeting
May 27-30, 2015
Las Vegas, United States

NEW Stem Cells: From Basic Research to Bioprocessing
June 9-11, 2015
London, United Kingdom

NEW EMBO Workshop – Cellular and Molecular Mechanism of Tumor-Microenvironment Crosstalk
July 9-12, 2015
Tomsk, Russia

NEW Gordon Research Conference – Hormone-Dependent Cancers
August 16-21, 2015
Newry, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the intestinal cell research community.
NEW Postdoc Physiology (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre)

NEW Assistant Investigator – Colon Cancer (Baylor Research Institute and Sammons Cancer Center)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

NEW Senior Medical Advisor – Inflammation & Immunology (Celgene Corporation)

NEW Research Fellows in Bioinformatics (University of Exeter)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Transcriptional Mechanisms of Stomach and Intestinal Stem Cells (Sickkids Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Functional Role of Intestinal Macrophages (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – New Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Microbiota in Cancer (Mount Sinai School of Medicine)

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